miranda rights and minors

Can Police Officers Question Minors Without Parental Consent?

miranda rights and minors

Most people recognize the fact that anyone under the age of 18, is a minor. Asa a minor, a person doesn’t have either enough knowledge or life experience to make good decisions on their own. That is why kids are considered to be under the protection of their parent or legal guardian. The minor’s parent is responsible for ensuring the child’s safety and well-being. If the minor gets into any trouble with law enforcement, the child is usually returned to their parents.

However, something that can cause some confusion is whether or not police officers need to consult the parent before questioning the child. After all, the child is a minor and may say something that could incriminate him or herself without realizing it. The minor may not even understand what Miranda Rights are, which can present a problem for them.

What Are Miranda Rights?

Most people know what there Miranda Rights are, whether or not they know that they know them, thanks to television. If anyone has ever watched a crime drama, then they have likely seen a character get arrested. When that happens, the officer “arresting” them reads of their Miranda Rights. This is the whole “You have the right to remain silent” speech the TV show officers give.

The full Miranda Warning is typically read as follows:

    “You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to have an attorney. If you cannot afford one, one will be appointed to you by the court. With these rights in mind, are you still willing to talk with me about the charges against you?”

After these have been read to a person, he or she can either begin to answer the questions, or remain silent.

While television doesn’t always give an accurate representation of everything that they portray, they do provide basic knowledge. For instance, despite what is shown on TV, Miranda Rights do not have to be read right when a person is arrested. They just have to be read before the person is interrogated. Thanks to Miranda Rights, when a person is arrested, they have the right to remain quiet without fear of additional punishment from law enforcement officers.

The Miranda Rights come from the court case Miranda v. Arizona (1966) where it was determined that Miranda’s Fifth and Sixth Amendment rights were violated during his arrest and trial. After the case, Miranda Rights were established in order to protect the rights of arrested individuals.

Officers Questioning Minors

When it comes to dealing with minors, for the most part, law enforcement officers have to go through the parents first. However, parents or guardians are not always with their children. Here in California, officers have to read a child their Miranda Rights the minute they take a minor into custody. A minor is considered to be in custody when:

  • He or she is deprived of their freedom.
  • The minor has reasonable belief that he or she cannot leave.

Once a minor is in custody, he or she can waive their Miranda Rights, but it must be done voluntarily. For the waiver to be considered voluntary, the officers could not bribe the minor into giving up information, nor could they threaten the minor. Any minor under the age of 15 cannot waive their Miranda Rights until after they have been consulted by a lawyer.

If a minor is not being arrested or detained, officers can still question him or her if they have reasonable suspicion that criminal activity has taken place. This can be done without consent or permission from a parent or legal guardian. Officers can also ask minors general questions when the child isn’t suspected of a crime and might have just been a witness instead.

Make Sure Minors Know Their Rights

When it comes to the law, minors are expected to protect their own rights. Parents are not guaranteed any right from the US Constitution to be present if and when their child is interrogated. Therefore, it is up to the parent to ensure that their child understand what their Miranda Rights are. If a parent does that, then their child will be less likely to accidentally incriminate themselves if they are ever interrogated.

opening door safety

Who Do You Open the Door For?

opening door safety

The front door to a home is a portal to safety for many people. Once a person is home, they no longer have to worry about people or the outside world. They are in their own personal kingdom. They make the rules, and get to do whatever they want. A person’s home is their sanctuary, which is why people are often very selective of who they allow through the front door.

Exhausted homeowners may not want to deal with whoever may be knocking on their door. While rare, it could be a pushy salesperson trying to sell some product that the person doesn’t want or need. Dealing with that is not fun. However, maybe the person’s child may want to open the door. At what age should a child be allowed to do that?

What Age Is Safe for Children to Answer the Door

When it comes to raising children, new parents can have a lot of questions. Take for instance when a child answers the front door. They’ve seen their parent do that dozens of times. They want to do it too. However, they do not realize how dangerous answering the door can be, especially for little ones. You never know who is on the other side of the door. It could be someone that the child can trust, a stranger, or even a pushy salesman. This begs the questions, when should children be allowed to answer the front door.

As with many questions about when a child might be ready for some sort of responsibility, the final say is up to the parent. Only a parent can truly determine when their child is ready for that extra bit of responsibility.

When it comes to answering the front door, a child needs to be aware of the dangers that could be lurking on the other side. This means that a child needs to be old enough and mature enough to make smart decisions. The exact age when this happens varies from child to child.

When a parents begins to allow their child to open the front door, they need to set some ground rules. Some examples of good rules to follow are:

  • Only can answer the front door when a parent is home.
  • Only answer the door for people that the child knows.
  • Never answer the front door when the child is home alone.
  • If they do answer the door, never admit to being home alone. Instead say that the parent is busy.

Dealing with Pushy Salesmen

Somethings never really get easier with age. Take for instance, dealing with pushy people. Pretty much everyone has dealt with a pushy salesman at least once in their live. Luckily, for the most part, salesmen are only found in stores. Gone are the days when traveling salesmen showing up on your door were more common.

However, salesmen can show up from time to time on your door step. These are definitely people that your child shouldn’t be answering the door for. Most adults don’t even want to answer the door for them. If a person has found themselves in the unfortunate position of dealing with a particularly pushy salesman, here are a few tips to get rid of him or her.

  • Be firm. A person should say they aren’t interested. They should never say they aren’t sure, because that implies they could be persuaded to but the product.
  • Don’t ask questions. This starts a conversation, and again implies that the person could be persuaded into buying the product.
  • Be busy. Whether or not the person is actually busy, they should say they are too busy to talk to the salesman.
  • Watch body language. Sometimes all it takes for a person to show they are uninterested is to turn away from the salesperson or simply walk away.

Don’t Open the Door for Strangers

Front doors are a very important part to a home. That simply little barrier helps decide who can and cannot enter into the private sanctuary. This is why people are so selective over who the answer the door for. They don’t want to open the door for some stranger after all.

When it comes to parents allowing their young children to open the front door, they need to be careful. They should only give privilege to kids who are mature enough to handle that kind of responsibility. The parent should also establish some ground rules to ensure that the child stays safe.

alcohol tolerance frequent questions

Everyone Can Handle Their Alcohol Differently

alcohol tolerance frequent questions

Most people recognize that everyone is different in their own unique way. Some people are taller, some are wider. Everyone’s skin color is a little bit different. There are so many things that make every single person different and unique. One type of difference that often gets overlooked is how our bodies handle different substances. In particular, how our bodies react to alcohol.

Since everyone is a little different in this regard, everyone has a different alcohol tolerance level. Some people get tipsy after a beer or two. Others need to have some hard liquor before they feel anything. These different tolerance levels can greatly affect a person and their abilities after having some drinks.

What Is Alcohol Tolerance

Alcohol tolerance refers to how well, or poorly, a person’s body is able to process the ethanol found in alcohol. A person’s alcohol tolerance determines how much alcohol a person needs to consume before feeling buzzed or drunk. It also plays a part in how well the person can recover after having those drinks.

Typically, larger people have higher alcohol tolerance levels than smaller people. This is due to the fact that it takes more alcohol to fully affect the larger body. Meanwhile, the same amount of alcohol could easily spread throughout the body of a smaller individual. Since, on average, men are larger than women, men have a tendency to have higher alcohol tolerance levels than women.

Human bodies are designed to adapt. While everyone starts out with a base alcohol tolerance level, that level goes up the more frequently a person drinks. The more alcohol a person consumes, the better their body becomes at processing the alcohol, to a point at least. Too much heavy consumption of alcohol can be damaging to the body. It can lead to a dependency on alcohol, alcoholism, and eventual liver failure. Both of these are not fun ailments to experience, and so a person needs to drink responsibly.

Things to Consider

When a person is drinking, they need to consider a lot of different things. If a person wants to stay healthy, they need to be aware of how much alcohol their body can handle. Knowing this will help them limit themselves and keep things from getting too out of hand.

Another thing to consider is the fact that a person’s alcohol tolerance level determines how well they can recover from a night of drinking. If a person has a low alcohol tolerance, then they should limit their drinking that night if they have plans the following morning.

A person should also have a good idea of their friend’s alcohol tolerance, or at least recognize when that friend has crossed the line. By identifying that moment, the person can help the friend make good decisions, such as not driving home from the bar. after all, anyone who has had too much to drink should not get behind the wheel of a vehicle.

Drink Responsibly

Everyone is a little different. This means that some people can handle alcohol better than others. This can be for any number of reasons. Maybe the person just drinks more frequently, or maybe they are a bit larger. Some studies have even found that since the availability of alcohol did not spread evenly across the world, some ethnicities have higher tolerances to alcohol than others.

No matter the reason for the differences, a person should be aware of their own alcohol tolerance. When they do, they will be less likely to over drink, which is referred to as drinking responsibly. This can keep them out of trouble, because people don’t always make the best decisions when drunk. This can also keep a person healthy by not over exposing themselves to alcohol.

five star bail service san bernardino

Penny Bail Bonds in San Bernardino Will Help You Face Your Loved One’s Arrest

five star bail service san bernardino

Nobody ever wakes up in the morning with the plan to bail out their soon-to-be arrested friend or family member. After all, no one plans on getting arrested, and they certainly wouldn’t share that plan with their loved ones. However, thousands of people are arrested every single day, and that is just here in California.

Sadly, this means that there is always a chance that someone you know could end up behind bars. If you care about that person, you will want to bail him or her out. That way, they do not have to spend a days, even months, behind bars as they await their day in court. You would much rather they be safe and sound at home.

This can easily be achieved by contacting Penny Bail Bonds in San Bernardino. Since 1987 we have helped Californians bail their loved ones out of jail. We know everything about the bail bond process and make it as quick and simple as possible. We understand that nobody wants to spend a lot of time dealing with the stress of a loved one being incarcerated.

Our agents will be by your side the whole time and will do the hard work for you. They will communicate with the jail and help you fill out the paperwork. We will even create a personalized payment plan to fit your budget. This way you will truly be able to afford to bail out your friend or family member.

You may not have known that you would be bailing someone out of jail today when you woke up this morning, but here you are. Thanks to Penny Bail Bonds in San Bernardino you have been able to face this surprise head on without worry. In just a few hours, your loved one will be home safe and sound, not locked up behind cold steel bars.


Do you need to bail out a friend or family member? You can get a free consultation by calling 866-736-6977 or by clicking Chat With Us now.


when can police do a search

When Can Officers Search You without a Warrant?

when can police do a search

Here in the United States of America, citizens are guaranteed certain rights and protections under the Constitution. The Constitution and its amendments are where most of our rights as citizens are written. Some of them, like the freedom of speech, are pretty well known. Meanwhile there are other rights that aren’t as well known, but are as equally important. A perfect example of this would the Fourth Amendment.

The Fourth Amendment to the Constitution protects citizens from unreasonable search and seizures. This means that police officers, and other government officials, can’t just decide to go through someone’s stuff without very good reason. In order for them to perform a search, they typically need a warrant from a judge. The warrant will give the officers permission to search through whatever it lists.

While typically a warrant is required, there are special instances where a warrant may not be required.

  • The person gives their consent to be searched.
  • The person is being arrested and searched for possible weapons.
  • Inspection searches at borders.
  • The police have probable cause there is evidence in a vehicle.
  • The incriminating item is in plain view.
  • It is an emergency situation and can prevent physical harm or damage.

In these instances, an officer may not need a warrant to search a person or their property.

Thanks to this law, officers cannot search a person’s personal property, real and digital, without the person’s consent or a warrant. The Fourth Amendment to the Constitution protects citizens and gives them privacy from law enforcement agencies.

cell phone tax in california

Can California Tax Text Messages?

cell phone tax in california

Everyone is different in their own, special way. However, there are somethings out there that we all do. Everyone needs to eat and drink, and we all like to stay connected with people that we care about. One of the most popular ways for people to stay connected is through texting. Local California lawmakers are aware of this, and looking to take advantage of this fact.

The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) wants to begin taxing text messages in order to help fund programs that provide phone services for the poor. They planned to vote on the measure in early January of 2019. The new tax would likely bring in millions of dollars for the programs.

However, while this idea was supported by the CPUC, it received immediate backlash from consumers and wireless service providers alike. Cellphone service providers were against the idea, because the tax would likely push users away from their messaging services to online messaging apps in order to avoid the tax.

Luckily, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has since intervened. They determined that text messages are an information service similarly to emails. They are not telecommunication services, which in theory means they cannot be taxed. However, not all supporters of the new tax are convinced that this is the end of the discussion on taxing text messages.

What do you think of California’s idea of taxing text messages? Let us know in the comments down below.

dui laws in california

It Is Never Okay to Drink and Drive

dui laws in california

If you were to ask anyone if driving while drunk was a safe thing to do, they would tell you it is a very dangerous thing to do. In 2017, 29% of all driving fatalities were caused by drunk drivers. This amounted to nearly 11,000 deaths that could have easily been prevented. With all the advances in technology, getting a safe ride home has never been easier. There is never a reason to get behind the wheel of a vehicle while drunk.

Drunk driving is illegal in every single state in the US due to how dangerous it is. Getting caught while driving under the influence carries heavy penalties, especially for repeat offenders. The laws and penalties vary by state. Here in California, the state has several different laws surrounding the act of driving under the influence (DUI).

Penalties of DUI

All California laws surrounding DUI basically state that a person should never get behind the wheel of a vehicle while intoxicated. What changes through these various laws is the exact circumstances. If a person is simply caught driving while intoxicated, they will face consequences under Vehicle Code (VC) 23152. If they cause injury to someone else, then they will face charges under VC 23153.
A person can even get into trouble for refusing to provide a breath or blood sample to an officer during a traffic stop. This can be charged under VC 23612.

The penalties for committing DUI vary depending on the crime itself and the driving record of the driver in question. The typical consequences for DUI can include:

  • Informal probation.
  • Max 6 month jail sentence for first offense/ Max 1 year for repeat offenders.
  • Base fines of $390 to $1,000.
  • Suspended or revoked driver’s license.
  • DUI school.
  • Community service.
  • Requirement to attend AA meetings.
  • Vehicle being impounded.
  • Instillation of breathalyzer ignition device on vehicle.
  • Victim restitution’s if someone was hurt.

Generally, DUI’s are misdemeanor offenses, unless:

  • Someone was seriously hurt.
  • Someone was killed.
  • This is the driver’s fourth DUI in a 10 year period.
  • This is the driver’s third DUI that harmed someone in a 10 year period.
  • The driver has a prior felony DUI in a 10 year period.

Felony DUI convictions can come with the already mentioned penalties, as well as these increased penalties:

  • Formal probation.
  • Prison sentences, which vary from case to case.
  • Base fines between $390 and $5,000.

DUI for Professional Drivers

The fact that DUI laws apply to all drivers is a given. However, what some people may not know is that this law applies differently to drivers who are for-hire. A for-hire driver being someone who drives a vehicle such as a taxi, bus, Lyft, or Uber.

Normally, drivers are only considered intoxicated if they have a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08%. However, for-hire drivers are only allowed to have a BAC of 0.04%. If a for-hire driver is caught driving with that level of BAC or hire, they will face DUI charges, which would likely mean a suspension of their driver’s license.

The Dangers of Hungover Driving

Something else that many drivers are not aware of is the fact that driving while hungover can be just as bad as driving while drunk. This fact was discovered by researchers at Utrecht University in the Netherlands. Participants of the study had 10 drinks, slept off the alcohol until their BAC was 0%.

The results showed that the drivers were roughly as impaired, if not more so, than a driver with a BAC of 0.05%. The drivers were more prone to speeding, struggled to drive straight, and just generally made more errors.

This is likely due to the results of being dehydrated, having low blood sugar, and not getting enough sleep the night before.

There Is No Reason to Drive Drunk

Driving while intoxicated is never a good idea. Not only is it against the law, it is incredibly dangerous. Drunk driving is the cause of thousands of accidents and deaths every single year in the US alone.

In today’s modern age, there is no reason for any of this. With smartphones, people now have the ability get a safe ride literally in the palm of their hand. A person can easily contact a loved one to come pick them up, or hire a driver of a taxi, Lyft, or Uber. Doing this has never been easier than it is right now. A person can easily save themselves and the lives of people they’ve never met by simply pulling out their phone before ever setting foot in a vehicle.

24 hour bail help in san bernardino

Did You Suddenly Find Yourself in Need of Bail Help?

24 hour bail help in san bernardino

The thought of bailing someone out of jail is not one that crosses a person’s mind unless they suddenly find themselves needing to bail out a loved one. This is usually due to the fact that people don’t want to even imagine the idea that someone they know might get arrested. While this may work out for some people, not everyone is lucky enough to never need to post bail in their life.

The fact of the matter is, thousands of people are arrested every single day in California alone. That means that at least twice as many people out their learn that that a loved one has been arrested and needs to be bailed out. That is not a fun thing to discover. Something like this can leave a person shocked and confused. Luckily, there are people out there who can help.

If you need bail help in the State of California, then you need to talk to the professional bail agents here at Penny Bail Bonds in San Bernardino. For over 30 years, we have been helping clients deal with the shock of a loved one’s arrest. We help our clients understand the bail process, and get their loved one out of jail quickly and affordably.

If you suddenly find yourself in need of bailing someone out of jail, do not panic. You can trust that the bail agents here at Penny Bail Bonds in San Bernardino will have your back. We provide all of the following to our clients:

  • 24/7 Bail bond service
  • 20% Discount
  • Phone approvals
  • 0% Interest payment plans
  • No hidden fees – unlike other bail agencies
  • No collateral with working signer
  • Se habla Espanol

Do not let the shock of a loved one’s arrest prevent you from lending a hand. Just because you don’t know much about the bail process does not mean that you cannot help. Just talk to one of our agents. They will be more than happy to answer your questions about the bail process and your loved one’s arrest. After talking to one of our agents, you will see that there is nothing to worry about.


Do you need to talk to a bail agent right now? No worries, our agents are always available, just call 866-736-6977 or click Chat With Us now.


affordable bail bonds san bernardino

Get Someone Out of Jail at an Affordable Price This Holiday Season

affordable bail bonds san bernardino

As the holidays roll around, everyone begins saving up money in order to buy their loved one’s the perfect gifts. This means that for a lot of people, their budgets get a little bit tighter at this time of year. They do not have the funds to deal with any surprises. Unfortunately, sometimes surprises pop up despite that fact.

For instance, you weren’t planning on your friend getting arrested, and yet there she is calling you from jail. You don’t have the money to post her bail, or so you think. You might be surprised to learn how affordable a bail bond from Penny Bail Bonds in San Bernardino can be.

Our bail bonds only cost 10% of the full bail price that you are looking to pay for. This means that if your loved one’s bail is set at $20,000, the bail bond will only cost $2,000. That is a savings of 90%. The idea of bailing out your friend just went from being impossible, to affordable.

Now that you realize that you can afford to bail out your friend, you want to contact one of our bail agents. This is very easy because our agents are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. On top of that, we also provide the following services:

  • 20% Discount
  • Over the phone approvals
  • 0% Interest payment plans
  • No hidden fees – unlike other bail agencies
  • No collateral with working signer
  • Se habla Español

If you want to bail your friend out of jail at an affordable price and in time for the holidays, just talk to the professionals here at Penny Bail Bonds in San Bernardino. Our agents will work with you to get your loved one out of jail quickly with a bail bond that you can actually afford.


If you are ready to get started, just call 866-736-6977 or click Chat With Us now.


consequences for not stopping for school bus

You Have to Stop for a School Bus in California

consequences for not stopping for school bus

Here in California, most drivers are in a rush to get wherever it is that they are going. To them, they do not have time to slow down or stop. A good example of this is the fact that an alternate name for a rolling stop is a California stop. However, just because a person is in a rush does not mean they can ignore traffic laws.

An important law that some drivers seems to forget, or pretend doesn’t apply to them, is that they have to stop for school buses. Here in the state of California, all drivers in both directions of a road have to come to a stop when a school bus is flashing red lights and displaying a stop sign. Cars are not allowed to start moving again until the bus stops flashing its red lights.

Some people who are aware of this law think that it only applies to drivers traveling in the same direction as the stopped bus. However, that is wrong. Everyone has to stop to ensure the safety of the children who are boarding or exiting the bus. The only time a vehicle does not have to stop for a school bus, is when it is on the other side of a divided roadway with two or more lanes traveling in both directions.

If a driver fails to stop for a school bus, they can face a $1,000 dollar fine. The driver can also lose their driving privileges taken away by having their license suspended. That is something that no one wants to deal with, as is the guilt that would come with hurting a child because a driver failed to stop for a school bus. That is why it is best for everyone to just wait until it is safe to proceed.